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Terminal Blackout: Critical Electric Infrastructure Vulnerabilities and Civil-Military Resiliency

Authors: Cynthia E. Ayers
Date Published: 201311
The extended loss of electric power is our nation?s most glaring national security weakness. Energy is an overarching component that comprises the strength and vitality of America ? it is the blood within the circulatory system that allows everything to run. If energy is drained from the system, then the rest of the structure will buckle and break down. However, concerns about a power grid breakdown are seldom discussed by citizens or the media; nor are they planned for by those involved in energy production and protection. There is no doubt that this threat places the sovereignty of our nation in jeopardy.
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Cyber Ricochet: Risk Management and Cyberspace Operations

Authors: Colonel (Ret.) Benjamin Leitzel
Date Published: 20120723
What do the names Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet have in common ? they are all malware programs deliberately built to exploit the vulnerabilities of computer networks and systems. Such cyberspace operations can produce effects that can accomplish national objectives with the promise of limited risk. However, these ?cyber bullets? are prone to ricochet and it is difficult to predict their spread which may propagate the uncontrolled use or reengineering by unfriendly actors, thus creating the real possibility of a ?cyber ricochet,? which could strike friendly networks and systems that could not only adversely affect military capabilities and operations, but also place a nation?s critical infrastructure and key resources at risk.
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AFRICOM's Role in Water Security

Authors: Cadet Christopher Best
Date Published: 20120629
Few substances on Earth are as important to human survival as water, with access to clean fresh water essential to the growth of industry, agriculture, and particularly to human population centers. This paper focuses on AFRICOM?s role in preserving U.S. interests in Africa by fostering water security through a discussion of major water challenges facing Africa in the near future, the relationship between water security and U.S. national security interests, and AFRICOM?s role in water security. Water security will become an increasingly important issue as the global population increases and access to water becomes more limited, and AFRICOM has the opportunity to play a crucial role in African water security given its resources and military connection to various water stressed African states.
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The Causes and Implications of the 2008 Financial Crisis

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Bob Bradford
Date Published: 20111021
The financial crisis of 2008 shocked markets and led to a global recession. Failure of the financial markets caused economies to shrink resulting in hardship and loss around the world. In our modern connected world, few nations escaped the consequences of the crisis. This huge financial crisis diminished the economic strength of our nation, with significant implications for our national defense and impacts for our national security.
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Chinese Five Year Plans: An Economic Catalyst?

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Troy Galloway
Date Published: 20111021
China's embrace of globalization in a measured manner is a direct result of the communist nation?s reliance on five-year national development plans to guide its growth and economic reform. This gradualist approach has worked well in moving the economy towards reform while avoiding significant risk. This paper discusses the linkages that exist between the significant Chinese economic success of the last 30 years and the communist five-year plans that have outlined many of the nation?s economic reforms.
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Economics of National Security: "Unfunding" Terror

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Mark Holzer
Date Published: 20111021
The discussion of how best to deprive terrorist organizations of funding is necessarily broad because of the numerous means people have devised to acquire and move funds for whatever purpose they intend. How seriously the United States takes this issue can be seen just in the number of statutory provisions that have been adopted and diligence with which we update terror-associated lists that are aimed at depriving terrorists of funds. However, the National Security Strategy's treatment of this topic is very broad and it is discussed only within fairly limited contexts. This may simply be a realistic assessment of the difficulties we face in trying to dry up terrorist funding streams and the challenges of evaluating our efforts in spite of the fairly broad approach that has been undertaken in the past decade.
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Is Brazil Actually Ready to be a World Economic Power?

Authors: Colonel Vance Stewart
Date Published: 20111021
Brazil, a large and populous country, is blessed with an abundance of natural resources and long-standing ties and traditions to Europe; it is seen as a leader among the nations of the South American continent. Brazil's ascendancy into the world?s diplomatic and economic leadership circles has been fueled by an amazing ten year span of economic growth, backed by sound government budgeting and responsible social programs to improve its citizens' quality of life. However, the question remains, is Brazil actually ready to be a world economic leader? In order to answer the question, this paper reviews Brazil's growth over the past ten years, examines relevant economic indicators, and analyzes problem areas that may inhibit or derail future, sustainable progress.
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BRIC in the Backyard: Brazil's Economic Rise and What it Means for the United States

Authors: Colonel James K. Rose
Date Published: 20111021
In today's increasing globalized world there are several rapidly emerging market success stories that many economic and financial analysts are watching with great anticipation. Brazil is one of these of these geo-political risers and it is perhaps the most underestimated of the so-called BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China. The story behind Brazil's economic growth is a remarkable tale and has multiple strategic implications for the United States as the two countries struggle to define their future bilateral relationship. The question of what Brazil's rise means for the United States and what are the security implications for the hemisphere are significant.
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The Strategic Importance of Shale Gas

Authors: Cadet Nathaniel Freeland
Date Published: 20111021
Fuel powers the industrial production that strengthens the economy and provides the means to project national power. Reliable sources of energy are imperative to the security of the United States. Energy security is the primary theme in discussing why increased domestic production of fuel is important in both geopolitical and international relations theory. The energy market within the scope of twenty-first-century globalization is increasingly affected by global interdependence. One only has to look back to 2009 when Russia cut off gas to Ukraine to note how potentially detrimental globalization of fuel supply is to a nation's energy security.
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Environmental Security in Botswana

Authors: Mr. Brent Bankus
Date Published: 20111015
The continent of Africa is important to U.S. national security interests, and on that continent regional security increasingly turns on human security. Long known for its influence over critical choke points and sea lines of communication, Africa is increasingly known as a land of vast stretches of under-governed spaces, burgeoning terrorist groups, world-class deposits of strategic minerals and petroleum, and the continent most affected by climate change. It is also known for high population growth rates and troubled governments struggling to maintain legitimacy. Many of the challenges originate with environmental change and a resource base eroded by high population growth rates, bad governmental policy, and environmental degradation. But, in resource rich Southern Africa, the regional country of Botswana is considered a success story. With fewer natural resources and a landlocked country, Botswana has historically been known as a champion of the environment and has been steadily making progress towards economic independence chiefly through sound fiscal decisions, diversifying its economy and attacking government corruption.
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Strategic Minerals: Is China's Consumption a Threat to United States Security?

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts, Mr. Brent Bankus, and 2nd Lieutenant Adam Norris
Date Published: 20110718
The vitality of a powerful nation depends upon its ability to secure access to the strategic resources necessary to sustain its economy and produce effective weapons for defense. This is especially true for the world's two largest economies, those of the United States and China, both similarly import dependent for large quantities of their strategic minerals. Because China's economy and resource import dependence continue to grow at a high rate it has adopted a geopolitical strategy to secure strategic resources. China's resulting role in the mineral trade has increased Western security community concern over strategic minerals to its highest point since the end of the Cold War.
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Assessing the Strategic Environment: Developing Critical Thinking Skills at the Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College

Authors: Professor Bernard F. Griffard
Date Published: 20110718
A government's failure to understand the impact of global variables on the domestic environment can result in major destabilizing events. As military officers progress in rank and responsibility, their perspectives must evolve. It is in a nation's self-interest to ensure its senior military leaders recognize the role that global trends and variables, and the strategic challenges they present, play in the development of a national security framework. These topics are usually addressed in a nation's senior military institute, as is the case in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia at the Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College (EDCSC). It was established with USAFRICOM and Army War College support in 2006, and that support continues today.
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Examining Military Governance as a Part of Professional Military Education

Authors: Mr. Brent Bankus, COL Lorelei Coplen, and Prof. James O. Kievit
Date Published: 20110615
Following the U.S. military's successes in Iraq and Afghanistan it quickly became clear that the new governments of these two nations lacked many of the essential capabilities required to actually implement good governance. Initially, despite the preference of the military officers on the ground to have some other entity be responsible for governance, that responsibility fell largely, if not exclusively, on U.S. military commanders. In order to assist selected future senior leaders to be better prepared for such responsibilities, the U.S. Army War College began offering an elective course entitled "U.S. Military Governance Operations, A Historical Perspective." This issue paper briefly outlines the scope of that course and provides reflections regarding military governance developed by the students who participated.
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Developing a Diplomatic Corps that is Second-to-None

Authors: Colonel Samuel White, Jr.
Date Published: 20110607
The 2010 National Security Strategy marked a change in emphasis in United States foreign policy direction after more than a decade of continuous military engagement in Afghanistan and Iraq. While a strong and capable military is still the cornerstone of U.S. national security, this broad and holistic approach to international relationships involves a whole-of-government mindset. In addressing this concept, the Center for Strategic Leadership partners with universities from around the country to educate and develop future diplomats who will be part of this vanguard. A highlight of these important partnerships is the International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise. But CSL also offers other experiential learning and education possibilities for both graduate-level international relations students as well as current Foreign Service professionals. Through interaction, the War College builds long-term partnerships with like-minded institutions - institutions which share the same educational, enrichment and outreach objectives and who focus on developing strategic leaders and decision makers.
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Implementing a New Vision: Unity of Effort in Preparing for and Responding to Catastrophic Events

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20110324
The Consortium for Homeland Defense and Security in America - consisting of the United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL); George Washington University's Homeland Security Policy Institute (HSPI); the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS); and the Heritage Foundation - held its annual symposium to examine pressing issues of shared concern to the domestic security of the United States and its allies. This year's event was constructed around the challenges of achieving Unity of Effort in preparing for and responding to catastrophic events.
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Climate Change, Adaptation and Security in Central America and the Caribbean

Authors: Marcela Ramirez & Dr. Kent Butts
Date Published: 20110324
Today, with its impact on water and food security and governmental legitimacy, climate change adaptation has emerged as a leading regional security issue and major concern to regional governments and their populations. The DOS Regional Environmental Office (Hub) and the Command Engineer Office of the U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) have a decade old partnership in promoting regional environmental security cooperation and have been supported closely by the U.S. Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL). This team has taken the lead in addressing the security dimensions of climate change adaptation in the Central America and Caribbean Region.
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Relationship Between Military Engineers and Environmental Issues

Authors: Marcela Ramirez
Date Published: 20110324
The principles of environmental stewardship and sustainability support environmental protection. Environmental protection is the application of human ingenuity and resources, through the disciplines of science and engineering, as required by environmental protection laws, regulations, and policies, to protect the natural environment. The United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) Command Strategy for 2016 provides a vision of a more joint interagency organization by collaborating with other USG agencies such as USAID and the U.S. Department of Agriculture in addition to NGOs/IOs and partner nations to ensure security, enhance stability and enable prosperity in the Americas. In the last decade USSOUTHCOM Command Engineers have promoted environmental engineering issues in their AOR in a collaborative way and have added the dimensions of human attitudes and values to the technical environmental protection process. To that end USSOUTHCOM Command Engineers have organized a series of regional Military Engineering and Environment Conferences in the region. The objectives of these conferences include supporting host nations in building institutional capacities; increase sustainability and resilience of partner nations to natural disasters; identifying cooperative civil-military venues and provide recommendations on military engineering and environmental challenges facing the AOR, in addition to creating strategic alliances throughout the region.
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Civil-Military Collaboration to Address Adaptation to Climate Change in South America

Authors: Marcela Ramirez and Dr. Kent Butts
Date Published: 20110324
The economic vitality of the South American region is threatened by the effects of climate change. Climate change often exacerbates existing environmental crises such as drought, water scarcity and soil degradation, intensify land use conflicts (especially in the Andean and Amazon Regions) and trigger environmentally induced migration. Glaciers are retreating and natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes are becoming more frequent and severe, exacting a heavy toll on the population and the economic infrastructure of the region. Successful adaptation measures may require multilateral cooperation to preempt these destabilizing affects before they impact on government legitimacy and threaten regional security. While civilian agencies will normally be the lead for proactively addressing climate change adaptation, they may be insufficient, or absent in distant frontier and border areas where only the military is present. In efforts to address these regional concerns, the U.S. Southern Command co-hosted two climate change-related events in South America. The first one in Colombia was focused on climate change adaptation, and the second in Peru, was focused on low carbon sustainable economies, both events emphasizing civil-military collaboration on the issues.
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Promoting Joint Staff and Interagency Cooperation in the Armed Forces of Montenegro

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard and Dr. R. Craig Nation
Date Published: 20110324
As Montenegro approaches its fifth anniversary of independence, the nation is actively pursuing membership in both the NATO and the EU, and looks to become a useful, contributing partner in both organizations. As part of that effort, over the past three years the U.S. Army War College's traveling contact teams have assisted the Armed Forces of Montenegro in the areas of joint staff structure, strategic planning processes, and national strategy reviews. As they strengthened their internal processes, the Montenegrin Ministry of Defense and the Armed Forces General Staff have come to recognize the key role that interagency cooperation plays in the execution of national policy and in the response to natural and manmade disasters.
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Creating the Future: Visioning, Alignment and Change in the Serbian Armed Forces

Authors: Professor Bernard F. Griffard and Colonel (Ret.) James W. Shufelt, Jr.
Date Published: 20110127
Today, in the States of the former Yugoslavia, national security teams are wrestling with the challenges of parallel political and military transformations. As a group, these countries have opted to align their futures with the West and the European Community. Whether NATO members, candidate members, or Partnership for Peace (PfP) participants, they are actively seeking assistance with strategic planning and professional military education.
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The Republic of Moldova Military Institute's Lecture Series: Leadership and Ethics

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Vincent Lindenmeyer and Dr. R. Craig Bullis
Date Published: 20101115
The Moldovan Military Institute (MMI) is in its second year of a three year action plan to completely revise its professional military education (PME) curriculum. In less than a year the MMI will begin its new curriculum for cadets to complete a four-year bachelor's degree program in public administration. To prepare the faculty members in developing the curriculum, the MMI is hosting a series of lectures from subject matter experts to assist in curriculum preparation. To that end, the MMI invited Dr. Craig Bullis, Department of Command, Leadership and Management (DCLM), U.S. Army War College (USAWC), and LTC Vince Lindenmeyer, Center for Strategic Leadership, USAWC, to the second event of this lecture series, titled Leadership and Ethics.
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Combatant Command Interagency Directorate Symposium

Authors: COL (R) Bernard Griffard
Date Published: 20101027
As a direct result of the tragic events of 9/11, the Secretary of Defense authorized the creation of interagency coordination cells within the Combatant Commands. As with the evolution of living organisms, after nine years each JIACG's development was directly impacted by its environment and among the Combatant Commands not even the name remains the same. At the request of the U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) EC-J9, the Army War College took a look at the many faces of interagency coordination from August 31 - September 1, 2010 when the Center for Strategic Leadership, hosted the Combatant Command Interagency Directorate Symposium (IDS). This event brought together for the first time the CCDR's Senior Executive Service (SES)/Senior Foreign Service (SFS)-Level civilian interagency coordinators in one room for a free flowing exchange of ideas and lessons learned.
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Crisis and Contingency Response Planning in the Serbian Armed Forces

Authors: Professor B. F. Griffard, Colonel Michael S. Chesney, and Lieutenant Colonel Gregory D. Hillebrand
Date Published: 20101027
By the very nature of their missions, the world?s militaries spend much of their time developing plans that address identified risks, only to find themselves reacting to security threats from an unanticipated sector, or to manmade and natural disasters. The ability to ?turn on a dime? is based in a creditable crisis action planning (CAP) process designed to support the military commander?s efforts to develop, analyze, select and implement a course of action (COA) within a constrained timeframe. It was with this focus that the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF) requested that the Commander, U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) provide a Traveling Contact Team (TCT) to conduct a workshop on this topic.
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Environmental Change, Natural Disasters and Stability in Central America and the Caribbean

Authors: Ms. Marcela Ramirez
Date Published: 20101008
Threats to state and human security result from, political and military, and gangs but also social, economic and environmental issues. These and an ever widening array of factors, from the proliferation of small arms and drugs trafficking, to transnational threats like water pollution, natural disasters, the spread of diseases and climate change, all contribute to actual and perceived insecurity. Responding to issues of regional security, the United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) Command Engineer office and the DOS Regional Environmental Hub for Central America and the Caribbean co-sponsored a Roundtable on Environmental Security and Natural Disasters in San Jose, Costa Rica.
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The International Conference of Military Engineers and the Environment

Authors: Ms. Marcela Ramirez and Colonel (Retired) Arthur L. Bradshaw, Jr.
Date Published: 20100804
Building trust and cooperation between the military and civilian sectors of the nations of South America is an essential step in the continuation of their progress as democracies. As part of its continuing efforts to assist in this endeavor, the United States Army Southern Command Engineers co-sponsored "The International Conference of Military Engineers and the Environment" in Santiago, Chile.
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Integrating Civil-Military Relations into the Professional Military Education Curriculum within the Republic of Moldova's Military Institute

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Vincent R. Lindenmeyer and Dr. Marybeth P. Ulrich
Date Published: 20100524
The Moldovan Military Institute (MMI) has a bold vision to become the premiere military training and academic institute for all levels of development for the Moldovan Armed Forces (MAF). The MMI is responsible for the professional development of all MAF officers and non-commissioned officers. This past February, the United States Army War College (USAWC) conducted an assistance visit to help facilitate the continued development of the MMI's model for a professional development curriculum.
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Serbian Army Transformation and the Role of Human Capital Strategy

Authors: Professor B. F. Griffard
Date Published: 20100501
Within the Balkan region there is a shared desire for integration into the European Community. A prerequisite for such integration is the modernization of the national security apparatus. For this reason, Serbia has a certain urgency to transform its national military organization. The Serbian Armed Forces (SAF) is tapping into both European and U.S. expertise for ideas on creating an effective and efficient Serbian Human Resource Management (HRM) system that supports its national security goals, achieves modern standards, and exhibits real capabilities.
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War Is War?

Authors: Dennis Murphy
Date Published: 20100315
How does cyberspace impact the military operational environment?
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Migration and Border Security: The Military's Role

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard and Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20091110
With the world's population in almost constant motion, migration is an everyday reality. According to the United Nations, the global number of migrants more than doubled in recent years offering both opportunities and complications for governments. However, the absence of integrated border management procedures leaves the door open to trafficking in human beings, transnational narco-crime, smuggling, and terrorism, all of which pose direct threats to government stability. Resolving this problem is both resource intensive and politically sensitive. To examine at this issue in detail the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) sponsored a roundtable to discuss Assisting Developing Countries in Securing Human Mobility.
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Food Security

Authors: LTC (R) Brent C. Bankus and Cadet Jason Delosua
Date Published: 20090924
Human Security and its seven tenets, Economic Security, Food Security, Health Security, Environmental Security, Personal Security, Community Security and Political Security have added a new dimension to the national security paradigm. For a majority of Americans and western Europeans, sufficient food is readily accessible and its cost is a relatively small percentage of their annual income. This, however, is not the case for almost a billion people around the world, including large numbers in the strategically important states of Egypt, India, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia. In these countries, and in others, food insecurity has been or is a contributor to regional or domestic instability.
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Toward Making Practice More Perfect in Stability Operations

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel George P. McDonnell
Date Published: 20090827
The likelihood that the United States, alone or as part of a coalition, will undertake stability operations in fragile of failed states remains as high today as it did a decade ago. If true, then the U.S. Army's participation in Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) will be a critical part of a successful strategy. Unfortunately, the Army's current doctrine on PRTs contains ambiguity and omissions that detract from its effectiveness. As the body of knowledge on this subject expands future revisions to FM 3-07, Stability Operations, need to overcome current shortcomings.
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Should Military Governance Guidance Return to its Roots

Authors: Colonel Hugh Vanroosen
Date Published: 20090827
A comparison of the 1943 United States Army and Navy Manual of Military Government and Civil Affairs with the latest version of the United States Army Civil Affairs Field Manual, published in 2006, reveals major changes in doctrine in the intervening sixty three years. While to some degree changing national and international conditions make many of those changes understandable, an argument can be made for the need to recapture the 'military government' essentials found in the 1943 document.
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Preparing for NATO Missions: Integrated Force Planning in the Albanian Armed Forces

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard, Dr. R. Craig Nation, and Colonel James W. Shufelt, Jr.
Date Published: 20090813
Albania became a full member of NATO on April 1, 2009. As affirmed by the NATO Secretary General, NATO membership not only brings benefits, but also responsibilities, one of which is the provision of forces capable of operating effectively within an Alliance command structure. This means that the Albanian Armed Forces (AAF) must complete their transition to NATO standards of manning, equipping, and resourcing the AAF. In support of this effort, and under the auspices of the U.S. European Command Joint Contact Team Program, the U.S. Army War College sent a three person team to Tirana, Albania to conduct a workshop on integrated force planning concepts and procedures.
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Enhancing Professional Military Education in the Horn of Africa

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard and Prof. John F. Troxell
Date Published: 20090813
United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM) is keenly aware that for small or emerging nations military modernization initiatives have domestic, regional, and international impacts on a nation's public, trade, finance, aid, and foreign policies. One of USAFRICOM's essential missions is to increase the ability of African nations to improve their own security, thus enhancing stability. One of AFRICOM's security engagement tools is sustained military to military (mil-to-mil) programs. The ongoing U.S. Army Central (USARCENT) effort to assist in establishing the Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College (EDCSC) serves as an excellent example of USARCENT's ongoing engagement.
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The Challenges Faced by Land Forces within a Full Spectrum Environment

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard
Date Published: 20090721
Tested daily in coalition operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. Army?s operational concept centers on initiative, risk, and opportunity, while simultaneously conducting offense, defense, and stability operations. In this increasingly complex security context, commanders must develop a broad understanding of the evolving "whole of government" approach in the conduct of operations within a full spectrum environment. This was the subject of the 2009 Land Forces Symposium, held in Mombasa, Kenya.
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USSOUTHCOM Interagency Meeting on Food Security

Authors: Brent Bankus and Marcela Ramirez
Date Published: 20090715
Within USSOUTHCOM's current strategy the U.S. military seeks to build partnerships with other government agencies that also operate in the region. This includes establishing public-private partnerships to tackle the issues affecting national and regional security issues such as food security. As part of this strategy USSOUTHCOM recently held an Interagency meeting on food security. It was a collaborative interagency effort that brought together participants from a variety of national and international organizations in addition to the Department of Defense. Participants included members from the Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Vision.
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United States and Mongolia Conduct Exercise Gobi Wolf

Authors: Colonel (Retired) Arthur L. Bradshaw, Jr.
Date Published: 20090715
Since the United States and Mongolia established diplomatic relations in 1987, a strong, dynamic and growing cooperative partnership has developed, one based on shared values and a commitment to democracy. One of the most successful cooperative exchanges between the two countries occurred recently with the execution of a bilateral disaster response training program, a progressive, multi-phased, joint training project that spanned the early months of 2009.
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The Militarization of the Collective Security Treaty Organization

Authors: Major (P) John A. Mowchan
Date Published: 20090715
There is mounting evidence that one of the long-term effects of Russia's incursion into the neighboring state of Georgia last year is taking shape in Moscow's recent reenergized efforts to transform the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) into to a more cohesive militarized security alliance. While still in the preliminary phase of development, Moscow's initiative most likely has a two-fold purpose: to help increase collective security within Eurasia, and to counter and ultimately limit U.S. and Western influence in Eurasian region, which the Kremlin still considers to be within its backyard, or more precisely part of its "Near Abroad."
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Strategic Vision Workshop: Land Power in the 21st Century

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Art M. Loureiro
Date Published: 20090715
The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership in conjunction with the George H. W. Bush School of Government at Texas A&M University conducted an important event entitled Strategic Vision Workshop: Land Power in the 21st Century, held in February 2009. This workshop was a continuation of previous workshops that involved the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, and the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The specific purpose of this workshop was to assist the Army Staff in analyzing strategic choices and the impact these choices have on the development of a future National Grand Strategy by taking an in-depth look at the various strategic choices that the United States must face in the future development and employment of land power.
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Information Operations means different things to different people.

Authors: Dennis M. Murphy
Date Published: 20090501
It's time for a doctrinal pause to allow a clean slate review of information operations, strategic communication and, yes, cyberspace operations. Such a review may find that simpler is better.
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Strategic Planning in the Albanian Armed Forces

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard, Dr. R. Craig Nation and Colonel Daniel G. Grey
Date Published: 20090215
A USAWC faculty team recently led senior leaders of the Albanian Armed Forces through discussions on developing a national security strategy and a national military strategy. Using the War College's strategic model process as a foundation, the combined seminar turned "theory" into "practice." All in support of several U.S. and NATO programs assisting the Albanian Armed Forces' ongoing transformation to a smaller, more effective, well-trained, joint force capable of contributing to future NATO operations.
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Operational Security in an Age of Radical Transparency

Authors: Dennis M. Murphy
Date Published: 20090124
Cell phones and Internet access have made the military operating environment increasingly transparent. Add to that the expectation of Soldiers to access to social media sites and the complexity of Operations Security dramatically increases, demanding Commander emphasis as never before.
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Caribbean Engineer and Environmental Conference

Authors: Marcela Ramirez, Colonel (Ret.) Art Bradshaw, and Dr. Kent Butts
Date Published: 20081116
The Command Engineer Office, United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), in collaboration with the United States Army War College?s Center for Strategic Leadership, conducted a successful four day "Engineer and Environment Conference" on 2-5 September 2008 in San Jose, Puerto Rico. The conference increased cooperation between United States Government (USG) agencies, the civilian and military leadership of Caribbean states, and the academic community on environmental engineering issues and disaster response activities in the region, and established new relationships for further collaboration.
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Transformation of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces

Authors: Prof. B.F. Griffard, Colonel James W. Shufelt, Jr, and Mr. Ritchie Dion
Date Published: 20081016
Since gaining independence from the former Soviet Union Azerbaijan has worked to develop closer ties with the West and is actively pursuing NATO integration. In support of these efforts the U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) utilized a traveling contact teams (TCT) under the auspices of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's (CJCS) Joint Contact Team Program to conduct a TCT seminar in Azerbaijan September 9-11, 2008, that addressed U.S. / NATO Military Organization, Operations & Standardization.
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Experimentation in Support of DoD's Homeland Defense and Civil Support Joint Operating Concept

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20081016
The Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the fourth in a series of 12 "Limited Objective Experiment" (LOE) workshops on 23 and 24 September 2008. This workshop series explores the validation and refinement of the Department of Defense's Homeland Defense and Civil Support Joint Operating Concept (HD-CS JOC).
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Military Transformation Challenges: Moldova and Montenegro

Authors: Prof. B.F. Griffard
Date Published: 20081016
The Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) has a strategic communication mission to support the Joint Warfighting and Interagency communities in their security cooperation efforts. Over the past 18 months, it has provided seminar traveling contact teams (TCTs) in support of the U.S. European Command's (USEUCOM) military transformation efforts for Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Estonia, Macedonia, Moldova, and Montenegro. To better understand the security challenges faced by smaller states this paper looks at recent seminars conducted in Moldova and Montenegro.
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Work Group 3 - The New Criticality of the National Guard Bureau

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20080715
Congressional mandate and Executive Branch direction have combined to task the military as never before in support of civil authorities in disaster response. Within that military, no organization will have a greater set of responsibilities in coordinating these commitments than a newly empowered National Guard Bureau.
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Work Group 2 - Assessing the Evolving Relationship of the National Guard to Other Components of Domestic Crisis Response

Authors: Prof. Dennis Murphy
Date Published: 20080715
The role of the state's National Guard in domestic crisis response continues to evolve, especially in its relation to the responsibilities of other agencies (both governmental and non-governmental). An assessment of that evolution reveals some important issues and potential solutions.
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Work Group 1 - Assessing the Evolving Relationship of the NGB with Other DOD Organizations in Responding to Crises

Authors: Colonel (Ret.) Scott Forster and Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20080715
Under of its new charter, the National Guard Bureau has been empowered with greater access, greater representation, and greater responsibility. Concurrently, it has inherited a primary role in coordinating the strengths of the Guard with other essential stakeholders in the military's support to civil authorities.
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Work Group 4 - Maximizing Access to Service Reserve Elements

Authors: Prof. James O. Kievit
Date Published: 20080715
Response to domestic crises is a burden most often borne by active duty armed forces organizations and reserve forces, such as the state's Army and Air National Guards, but there are many other auxiliary forces that can contribute to crisis response. However, current federal law places some significant limitations on the use of these auxiliary forces for Defense Support to Civil Authorities. How to maxmize access to and contributions by all available reserve elements was the focus of Work Group #4.
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Adaptability of Land Forces to 21st Century Security Challenges

Authors: Prof. B. F. Griffard
Date Published: 20080515
Over the past 45 years changes in the strategic environment require land forces that are capable of more than just attacking and defending. Within the 21st century environment, shaping the civil situation to accomplish the strategic endstate is just as important as combat success. Transforming a nation's military to face these challenges requires both recognition of the need for change and determination to accomplish that change. With this in mind the 2008 Land Forces Symposium brought together military representatives from 22 countries within the U.S. Central Command region to discuss the Adaptability of Land Forces to 21st Century Security Challenges.
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Strategic Vision Workshop

Authors: MG Robert Williams, Prof. Doug Campbell, COL Phil Evans and LTC Art Loureiro
Date Published: 20080515
A definition of Strategy is that it is about the choices a nation makes given a particular strategic environment, and the trends shaping our future strategic environment point toward an era that some have labeled "persistent conflict". Given this premise The United States Army War College (USAWC), in support of the Army Staff and in cooperation with national security faculty and researchers at Harvard, MIT, and Tufts University conducted a series of workshops from 7-10 April 2008 entitled Strategic Vision Workshop: National Grand Strategy. The Workshop explored the various choices available to the United States involving the use of the elements of national power as depicted in the DIME model (Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic).
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Albania - Observations on a Changing Nation

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard, Colonel William R. Applegate and Colonel Patrick O. Carpenter
Date Published: 20080415
On April 2, 2008, NATO offered Albania membership in the Alliance. For a country once described by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as no more than a "geographical expression," this was a reward for a long tortuous journey through history. Using the perspective of an eyewitness to the Albania of the late 1990's, this paper identifies the progress made by the Albanian Armed Forces over the past 11 years and why they earned NATO membership.
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3rd Annual Proteus Academic Workshop and a "Call for Papers"

Authors: Mr. Bill Wimbish
Date Published: 20080315
THE THIRD ANNUAL PROTEUS "FUTURES" ACADEMIC WORKSHOP, 16-18 SEPTEMBER 2008, and "CALL FOR PAPERS" The United States Army War College, the National Intelligence University, and The Global Futures Forum will sponsor the Third Annual Proteus "Futures" Academic Workshop from 16-18 September 2008 at the Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL), Carlisle Barracks, PA. The objective of this year's workshop is to assist in ongoing foresight efforts by bringing together experts from the military, national security and intelligence communities, academia and the private sector to present papers on global trends that will offer significant challenges and opportunities for United States and its allies well into the 21st century and to exchange ideas and showcase studies on "futuring" methods. For more information, review the concept paper or contact: Mr. Bill Wimbish (717-245-3366) or Mr. Pat Cohn (717-245-3196)
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Intelligence Scotomas in Central and South America, The Proteus Monograph Series, Volume 1, Issue 4

Authors: John B. Alexander, Ph.D
Date Published: 20080315
For decades, events in Central and South America have rarely broken through the consciousness of any administration, let alone the American people. Were it not for illegal immigration or drug busts, there would be almost no news from Latin America on mainstream television. Globally, only the unpopulated Antarctic seems to have less coverage. Although information on pending trouble and catastrophe, has been resident inside the intelligence community and there have been individuals shouting warnings, most tragically fell upon is falling on deaf ears. Similarly, today the necessary information about discordant events throughout Latin America is available to the intelligence community and policymakers. The time has passed in ignoring a tinder box ready to ignite and for executing minor, disjointed tactical interventions. Rather, the United States needs a strategic shift in policy if we are to foster harmonious relations with our southern neighbors and hope to stem the tide of a far larger manifestation of crime and terrorism. John Alexander discusses multinational concerns and major demographic and political shifts that are already occurring in this region and why they are important to North American national interests. Included are international issues that combine social, economic, political, and security factors that should be of concern to everyone. He artfully connects the dots that clearly indicate that the generally unrecognized tensions in Latin America are integrally intertwined with global issues.
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New Media and the Warfighter: Workshop Initial Impressions

Authors: Prof. Dennis M. Murphy
Date Published: 20080315
YouTube, GoogleEarth, MySpace, cell phones.... New media has made the job of the warfighter infinitely more complex.
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Building Governance Capacity through the Commander's Emergency Response Program

Authors: Colonel Scott Spellmon and Lieutenant Colonel Pete Andrysiak
Date Published: 20080115
In Counterinsurgency the sixth paradox states: "The host nation doing something tolerably is normally better than us doing it well." This paper explores this paradox and its relationship to building governance capacity through the (CERP). The authors describe the origins of the CERP program, its initial role in improving governance capacity in Iraq, and present an alternative method commanders can employ in their unit CERP program to achieve more positive effects in their governance line of operation.
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Elections in Afghanistan: Looking to the Future

Authors: Michael J. Metrinko
Date Published: 20080115
The upcoming Afghani elections are essential to the country's political development, and are a major step in the peaceful transmission of power. However, lack of security, pervasive corruption, reluctance to finance the effort,and disagreement over timing impact the feasibility of holding elections. While none of these factors in and of themselves is sufficient to prevent the upcoming elections, taken in combination they present a formidable challenge.
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The Trouble With Strategic Communication(s)

Authors: Prof. Dennis M. Murphy
Date Published: 20080115
The unfortunate truth about Strategic Communication is that we know it's important, but we don't quite know what it is....
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Using Sustainability to Build Stability in Africa: Strategic Policy Issues for the Army

Authors: Dr. Kent H. Butts, Colonel Arthur L. Bradshaw, Jr. (USA, Retired), and Mr. Brian Smith
Date Published: 20080115
The Center for Strategic Leadership is hosting a series of workshops on "Using Sustainability to Build Stability in Africa: Strategic Policy Issues for the Army." The first was held 18-19 July 2007 and the second on 2-4 October 2007 at the Collins Center. Working within the context of U.S. Africa Command's strategic vision, the series is examining how the Army can leverage sustainability as an approach to engaging African nations.
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The 2nd Annual Proteus Academic Workshop and the Way Ahead

Authors: Mr. Bill Waddell and Mr. Bill Wimbish
Date Published: 20071015
The Proteus Management Group (PMG)hosted the second annual Proteus Futures Academic Workshop 14-16 August 07 at the Center for Strategic Leadership. This year's workshop provided international scholars from various organizationsand institutions across government, academia and the private sectorthe opportunity to present papers on topics and issues that explorecomplexity in the future global security environment. This year'sworkshop was the second in a series of annual futures academic workshopssponsored by the National Intelligence University, Office of the Directorof National Intelligence. The three-day event centered on examining futurecomplex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decisionmaking across the elements of national power (Diplomatic, Informational, Militaryand Economic).
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Military Education Workshop

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts and Mr. Arthur L. Bradshaw
Date Published: 20070815
The Woodrow Wilson International Center and the Center for Strategic Leadership co-sponsored a Teaching Environment, Population, and Security Workshop, 22-23 May 2007.The purpose of this Professional Military Education oriented workshop was to determine how the Wilson Center could provide educational resources and support to military educators and researchers who identify the role of the military element of power in responding to environmental security challenges, determining policy implications of this involvement, and identifying roles and missions for further research.
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Sixth Annual Reserve Component Symposium Workshop #1

Authors: Prof. B.F. Griffard
Date Published: 20070815
The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007. The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States.The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the work groups. The topic addressed is: The Evolving Relationship between the United States Northern Command and the Military's Reserve Component in Preparing for and Responding to Catastrophe.
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Sixth Annual Reserve Component Symposium Workshop #2

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20070815
The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007. The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States. The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the work groups, and the topic addressed is: The Potential Need to Establish an Appropriate Mechanism for the Military to Accompany and Support Civilian Components Focused on Regional Response to Catastrophe.
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Sixth Annual Reserve Component Symposium Workshop #3

Authors: Prof. John Troxell
Date Published: 20070815
The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007. The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States. The symposium utilized four work groups with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the groups, and addresses the topic "The Military's Role in Supporting an Evolving National Response Plan.
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Sixth Annual Reserve Component Symposium Workshop #4

Authors: Prof. James Kievit and Mr. John Elliot
Date Published: 20070815
The United States Army College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007.The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States.The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue.This paper is the product of one of the groups, and addresses the topic "The Development and Dissemination of a 'Common Operational Picture' in Preparation, Response and Recovery Operations between the Components of the Military and Civilian Authorities at all Levels of Government.
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Beyond Iraq: The Lessons of a Hard Place

Authors: Mr. Anton K. Smith, U.S. Department of State
Date Published: 20070715
The global jihadist insurgency is undercutting the modern states system. Rebalancing focus on the instruments of national power is key to containing and shaping instability in the Middle East. The author calls for better understanding of the cultural and historical differences between the West and the rest of the world; understanding the primacy of economic development over political process; and alliances with regional states. This is a USAWC award-winning student paper. This paper received The Military Order of the World Wars Writing Award.
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Common Security and the Global War on Terror: USARCENT Land Forces Symposium 2007, Islamabad, Pakistan:April 10-12, 2007

Authors: Prof. B.F. Griffard
Date Published: 20070715
Without a doubt planning for the post-major combat operations phases in Afghanistan and Iraq lacked prescience; yet there remains a requirement to kill terrorists while attempting the win the hearts and minds of the extremists. How to accomplish this was the topic of discussion for the senior ground force commanders from 22 nations attending the second annual U.S. Army Central Land Forces Symposium in Islamabad, Pakistan April 10-12, 2007.
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Making Riflemen from Mud": Restoring the Army's Culture of Irregular Warfare

Authors: LTC James D. Campbell, PhD, U.S. Army National Guard
Date Published: 20070715
Nearly 300 years of American military tradition, from the colonial period until 1941, created a deeply engrained facility with unconventional warfare. Since World From the Pequot War in 1637, to the Seminole Wars in the early nineteenth century, the Apache campaigns after the Civil War, and in twentieth century small wars from the Philippines to Vietnam, the mandate for human intelligence has been a key component of unconventional warfare. Since World War Two, the wider military has lost this expertise and comfort with unconventional operations, with the Special Operations community taking on the sole proprietorship of this role. The top research paper in the USAWC Research Competition captures the experience, and lessons, of fighting on the western plains after the Civil War, and the creation of the Philippine Scouts at the beginning of the twentieth century. This was named top research paper in this year's USAWC Research Competition.
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A View of Command, Control, Communications and Computer Architectures at the Dawn of Network Centric Warfare

Authors: Kevin J. Cogan
Date Published: 20070315
This issue paper focuses on Volume II of a much larger three volume case study entitled Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) during Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (March-April 2003). The author critically analyzes the history of communications architecture acquisition before OIF and the inadequacy of current acquisition cycle times to keep pace with the rapid advances in technology, and specifically addresses three insights derived from his research.
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Science and Technology Day 2007; Integration of the Robots

Authors: Mr. Bill Waddell and Mr. Bob Barnes
Date Published: 20070315
In order to prepare future military leaders for emerging operations and the implications and application of technology to the battlespace, students at the U.S. Army War College were provided opportunity to discuss and experience autonomous and robotic technology. Experts from the field provided seminar groups with presentations on current and emerging technology, along with discussions on strategic implications concerning the use of autonomous capabilities in warfare. In conjunction with these presentations, a large scale exhibit of robotic vehicles was conducted for students, staff, faculty, and the community writ large.
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Proteus "Futures" 2007 Academic Workshop, and a 'Call for Papers'

Authors: Mr. Bill Wimbish
Date Published: 20070115
The United States Army War College, in collaboration with the Office of the Director, National Intelligence (DNI), will conduct an academic workshop to explore the complexity of the future global security environment, its discrete threats and opportunities, and examine new and emerging Proteus related strategies and processes to meet 21st century U.S. national security needs. This workshop's overall purpose is to vet and exchange ideas through presentation of submitted papers. The event will take place 14-16 August 2006 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, Carlisle Barracks Pennsylvania.
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Belize 2021 National Security Framework: Strengthening the Links between Policy, Resource Allocation and Execution

Authors: Prof. B. F. Griffard and Colonel Dale Eikmeier
Date Published: 20061215
The current absence of an institutionalized process for long-range national security planning has placed Belize at a strategic disadvantage. To reduce risk and achieve Vision 2021, Belize is developing an integrated national security architecture that provides long-range planning and interagency coordination capability. Success in this area will allow Belize to take the lead in the development of a regional security strategy.
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Proteus: New Insights for a New Age; Proteus Futures Academic Workshop Report

Authors: Mr Bill Waddell and Mr Bill Wimbish
Date Published: 20061115
The Proteus Management Group (PMG) hosted the first annual Proteus Futures Academic Workshop 22-24 August 06 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. This workshop was the culmination of a year of inaugural activities and was focused on providing experts from various organizations across the Department of Defense, Interagency, academia and the private and corporate sectors the opportunity to present papers on topics and issues related to the Proteus Insights that addressed future strategic national security challenges.
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Belize 2021: Ends, Ways, Means and Risk Management: Belize National Security Strategy Formulation Process Workshop #2

Authors: Prof. B. F. Griffard and Colonel Dale C. Eikmeier
Date Published: 20060915
This paper reports on the continuing process to develop Belize's roadmap to 2021, as exercised during the second strategy formulation workshop. Initiated by the Government of Belize, and supported by the United States' Southern Command, the national security strategy (NSS) formulation process workshop series is a model for drawing on the expertise of a nation's international partners to create the necessary synergies for the successful formulation of a national strategy.
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Improving the Military's Domestic Crisis Response

Authors: Prof. Bert Tussing, Colonel James Roth and Colonel (Retired) Richard Dillon
Date Published: 20060815
In times of severe domestic crisis, the United States military is expected to be the quintessential support mechanism for response and recovery. A vital element of those efforts should be the Reserve Component; but recent history has seen the reserves misapplied, or overlooked in catastrophic response, perhaps when they were needed most. How to properly employ our Nation's military reserves in response to a domestic crisis was the focus of the fifth annual Reserve Component Symposium: Improving the Military's Domestic Response: Leveraging the Reserves.
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Strategic Communication in Domestic Disasters

Authors: Prof. Dennis M. Murphy and Colonel (Retired) Carol Kerr
Date Published: 20060815
Strategic Communication during disaster response directly supports the ability of the U.S. government and it's military to establish a safe and secure environment for our citizens. Accurate public information is critical. Managing expectations and positively influencing perceptions by proactive education and training is equally important. Senior military commanders must provide accurate messages in conjunction with actions and images that instill confidence. In the end, Strategic Communication is commander's business.
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Belize 2021: Developing a National Security Strategy for the Future

Authors: Prof. B. F. Griffard
Date Published: 20060715
Belize is uniquely positioned to be the link between Central America and the Caribbean regions. As a stable democracy Belize is in a position to promote good governance in both regions. However, the country has challenges that cannot be properly addressed in the absence of a cohesive national security strategy (NSS). Their recognition of a need for an integrated NSS has dovetailed with the Commander, USSOUTHCOM's efforts in promoting development of Regional Security Strategies for Central America and the Caribbean, and Belize is the first in the region to step up to the plate in this effort.
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Military Role in Addressing the Underlying Conditions of Terrorism

Authors: Prof. Terry Klapakis, Dr. Kent Hughes Butts, and Colonel (Ret.) Art Bradshaw
Date Published: 20060715
The Department of Defense's continued review of the United States capability and capacity for combating terrorism has identified significant gaps and areas for improvement. One of the critical areas is the need to effectively Counter Ideological Support to Terrorism, or CIST. To assist in those efforts a Joint Staff conference, The Military Role in Addressing the Underlying Conditions of Terrorism, was held in April. The conference brought together key interagency players with representatives from all of the Combatant Commands (COCOMs). COCOM representatives were able to learn the latest interagency programs to address CIST and the challenges to their implementation. The interagency representatives learned lessons from how the military element of power has been successfully used to support interagency efforts addressing local conditions that terrorists seek to exploit.
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Proteus Insights and the Protean Media Critical Thinking Game

Authors: Mr. Bill Wimbish
Date Published: 20060615
The Department of Defense has launched numerous initiatives to develop scenarios, models, simulations, and games to educate and assist strategic and operational intelligence analysts and decision-makers in dealing with future asymmetric and idiosyncratic complexity, especially as it relates to technology, social values, cultural norms, beliefs and human behavior. The Protean Media role-playing environment (RPE) or "Critical Thinking Game" is a prime example of the current initiatives. Protean Media is a "light" and low cost RPE, designed to model complex adaptive systems and naturally evolving events. This Game is a systems approach to human conflict. The Protean Media is not a total panacea for gaming or modeling complexity; however, it establishes the foundation for others to build upon.
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Support to Civil Authority in Seismic Disasters: Regional Initiatives (U.S. Pacific Command Southeast Asia Seismic Disaster Preparedness Conference)

Authors: Prof. B. F. Griffard, Dr. Kent Hughes Butts and Colonel (Ret.) Art Bradshaw
Date Published: 20060215
The "Ring of Fire" is a tough neighborhood. Covering a vast area in the Pacific Ocean region, it is the home of the majority of the world's active volcanoes and a series of dynamic tectonic plates that produce frequent, sometimes violent seismic events. While this is a fact of life in the region, the Tsunami of December 2004 provided additional impetus for the region's nations to explore additional measures for disaster preparedness. With this as their focus, senior civilian and military emergency planning professionals from Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Mongolia, and the United States met in Honolulu Hawaii on 26-28 September 2005 for a Seismic Disaster Preparedness Conference hosted by the United States Pacific Command.
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Proteus "Futures" Academic Workshop, and a 'Call for Papers'

Authors: Mr. Bill Wimbish and Mr. Bill Waddell
Date Published: 20060115
The United States Army War College, in collaboration with the Office of the Director, National Intelligence (DNI), will conduct an academic workshop to explore the complexity of the future global security environment, its discrete threats and opportunities, and examine new and emerging Proteus related strategies and processes to meet 21st century U.S. national security needs. This workshop's overall purpose is to vet and exchange ideas through presentation of submitted papers. The event will take place 22-24 August 2006 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, Carlisle Barracks Pennsylvania.
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Information Operations and Winning the Peace: Wielding the Information Element of Power in the Global War on Terrorism

Authors: Dennis Murphy
Date Published: 20051215
The "War of Ideas" is (or should be) a central component, and sometimes the main effort, of U.S. government activities in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. Concerns about U.S. effectiveness in this arena remain high. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict offers a unique, parallel case study to explore successes, missteps, and missed opportunities of the use of information as an element of power during a counterinsurgency. Academicians, Department of Defense military and civilians, and representatives of U.S. diplomatic and intelligence communities joined officials form the UK Ministry of Defense and the Canadian Department of National Defense personnel to develop lessons learned and avenues for further investigation during a workshop at the U.S. Army War College.
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The Fourth Annual USAWC Reserve Component Workshop: The Role of the National Guard in Critical Infrastructure Protection

Authors: Prof. Bert Tussing, Prof. James Kievit and Colonel Richard Dillon
Date Published: 20051015
The Department of Defense believes that one of the most essential and promising areas of employment for the National Guard in defense of the homeland is in the area of Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP). Seeking to validate this approach and assist in the development of implementing activities was the approach of the Center for Strategic Leadership's fourth annual Reserve Component workshop, Reinforcing the First Line of Defense: The Role of the National Guard in Critical Infrastructure Protection, conducted on 15-17 August 2005. Workshop participants examined the perspective of agencies and entities within and outside of the Department of Defense and used these perspectives as a springboard for the follow-on workshop groups to examine a series of questions to discern potential paths the National Guard might take, or reject, in support of Critical Infrastructure Protection. A final plenary session provided the assembled participants an opportunity to review and critique the individual work groups' findings and insights.
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Peace and Stability Education Workshop

Authors: Tammy S. Schultz and M. J. Cross
Date Published: 20050915
Changing dynamics in peace and stability operations in locations such as Kosovo, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Iraq, has shifted conditions in field operations. The changing environment requires educational institutions, both military and civilian, to reevaluate and adjust their curricula and educational programs. Toward that end the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) conducted an unclassified Education Workshop 13-15 September 2005 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, Collins Hall, Carlisle Barracks, PA. Educators and key leaders from the military services, the Joint Staff, international and non-government organizations, interagency offices, and centers of higher education came together to explore possible strategies to improve education for senior leaders engaged in peace and stability operations.
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The Annual Collins Center Senior Symposium: Aligning the Interagency Process for the War on Terrorism

Authors: Prof. Bert Tussing and Dr. Kent Hughes Butts
Date Published: 20050715
Charges have been levied that the U.S. government's War on Terrorism is currently encumbered by an interagency process ill-suited for the task. Endeavors to address failed/failing states, reconstruction and stabilization, and other diverse efforts focused on the underlying conditions that foster terrorism, appear to be disjointed, with no central authority (save the President himself) to direct them. On 24 and 25 May 2005, the Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the annual Collins Center Senior Symposium, which undertook the task of examining these purported shortcomings. The symposium brought together a distinguished panel of retired flag and general officers and government officials to engage in an examination of the issues focusing on the question of how the interagency process can be improved to better address the War on Terrorism.
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The Global War on Terror: Mistaking Ideology as the Center of Gravity

Authors: LTC Cheryl L. Smart
Date Published: 20050715
The Cold War was portrayed as an epic clash of two ideologies ? Western Democracy versus Communism. Section IV of the defining cold war document, National Security Council 68 (NSC 68), was entitled "The Underlying Conflict in the Realm of Ideas and Values between the U.S. Purpose and the Kremlin Design," and it argued that the basic conflict was between ideas ? "the idea of freedom under a government of laws, and the idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin."1 The adversary resided in the Soviet Union and violence in other regions in the world ? including terrorist violence ? was exported from or used by this center of Communism. Today, the war of ideas is Western Democracy versus Salafi Islam. Al Qaeda is the main enemy, with our main effort targeted to a particular geographic region ? the Middle East, where undemocratic, repressive regimes represent the center of the opposing ideology. This is oversimplified, but there is some merit in such a mental picture.
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The State Department Office of Reconstruction and Stabilization and its Interaction with the Department of Defense

Authors: COL John C. Buss
Date Published: 20050715
Over the past 15 years, the United States has been involved in seven major post-conflict reconstruction and stabilization operations.1 The ad hoc responses that characterized U.S. stabilization efforts in these missions have often proven inadequate. On each mission, our government has struggled to provide a responsive and enduring solution. The consequences have been the unnecessary loss of life, damage to infrastructure, and higher eventual costs for reconstructionand stabilization. Our unpreparedness to respond to the instability in post-war Iraq has met with sharp criticism. In response to these failings, the Bush administration established the U.S. Department ofState (DOS) Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS). This paper will analyze the functions of S/CRS, examine the organization's relationship with the military, and offer Department of Defense (DOD) policy recommendations to improve the interagency cooperation with this new organization.
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The Status of the Transition of Strategic C4 Systems in DoD and USAWC

Authors: Mr. William Waddell
Date Published: 20050715
The Department of Defense is in the middle of a transition with regard to the strategic command, control, communications and computer systems being used at the Joint Operational and Strategic levels of warfighting and planning. This transition affects the USAWC areas of education, collaboration, and outreach as students prepare for future leadership roles. Within this context Mr. Waddell discusses the projected transition in strategic C4, identifying the emerging tools and capabilities in JC2, and also discuss emerging capabilities in the areas of force planning and collaboration systems. He focuses on the impact of the use of these tools and capabilities at the U.S. Army War College for education, research, and outreach.
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U.S. Pacific Command Combating Terrorism Symposium: Addressing the Underlying Conditions of Terrorism

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts and Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20050715
One of the four goals of the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism is to "Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit." Addressing the underlying conditions of terrorism should be a component of a comprehensive and balanced U.S. combating terrorism policy that includes protecting the homeland and attacking and disrupting terrorist organizations. Co-sponsored by U.S. Pacific Command, the National Intelligence Council, and the United States Agency for International Development, the USPACOM Combating Terrorism Symposium brought together military and civilian representatives of the National Security interagency at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, June 8-10, 2005.
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Disaster Preparedness: Anticipating the Worst Case Scenario

Authors: Prof. B.F. Griffard, COL (Ret.) Art Bradshaw, Dr. Kent Hughes Butts
Date Published: 20050315
Effective disaster preparedness planning at the national and regional levels is a "high payoff" investment that governments can make in anticipation of large-scale natural or man-made disasters. The 2005 Indonesian area earthquake and tsunami and the resulting national, regional, and international response efforts energized the nations of South Asia to take a serious look at their disaster preparedness planning processes and at the critical gaps exposed by the magnitude of the disaster.
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Golden Spear Task Force Meeting and Initial Planning Conference

Authors: Colonel Scott Forster
Date Published: 20050315
The US Central Command (USCENTCOM) hosted the Golden Spear Task Force Meeting and Initial Planning Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-17 February 2005. Delegates were present from Kenya, Burundi, Egypt, Seychelles, Ethiopia, and Uganda while U.S. participation included USCENTCOM, United States European Command (USEUCOM), National Defense University (NDU), African Centre for Startegic Studies (ACSS), and the U.S. Army War College. The primary objectives for the conference included establishing the Golden Spear Task Force, determining the location for the Regional Support Center, proposing a Regional Disaster Management Coordination Mechanism, and Planning the way ahead for future Golden Spear Meetings.
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Network Enabled Operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Initial Impressions

Authors: Prof. Dennis Murphy
Date Published: 20050315
The first Gulf War was conducted with legacy systems straddling the industrial and emergent information age. The major combat operations phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), on the other hand, put into practice information age constructs and theory for the first time in warfare and was an unprecedented success in its speed and lethality. The impact of that network enabled campaign (often referred to as Network Centric Warfare) is the topic of a study conducted by the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College and commissioned by the Office of Force Transformation, U.S. Department of Defense. The study will be completed by the fall of 2005, but first drafts of the study hint at valuable operational and strategic insights
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U.S. Southern Command Environmental Security Training Workshop

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts, Mr. Alex Sonski, and Mr. Jeffrey C. Reynolds
Date Published: 20050315
Environmental Security provides a low-cost, non-threatening opportunity for multi-lateral international and interagency cooperation and communication. Executing environmental security missions creates positive new roles for the military and builds governmental legitimacy in the eyes of the people. The US SOUTHCOM Environmental Security Training Workshop brought together military and civilian representatives of the seven Central American states in Alajuela, Costa Rica, January 17-24, 2005
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Combating Terrorism and Enhancing Regional Stability and Security through Disaster Preparedness

Authors: RADM Robert T. Moeller, USN; RADM John F. Sigler, USN Retired; Prof. B.F. Griffard, CSL
Date Published: 20041115
Uninterrupted access to and use of critical infrastructure in the Arabian Gulf region are key to the successful prosecution of the Global War on Terror. To maintain access and use, the U.S. Central Command and its Gulf Region partners must deny outside organizations the ability to influence these requirements through terrorism. Essential to this will be information sharing and shared capabilties. To facilitate this endstate, theater security cooperation initiatives that promote regional collaboration are underway to improve national disaster preparedness capabilities and effective disaster preparedness training with partner nations.
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Responding to the Unthinkable; the Roles of the Military

Authors: LTC Jeff McNary
Date Published: 20041115
A review of the roles of Army AC/RC forces in responding to either a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) attack on the territory of the United States. Examines the potential expansion of the military's role in the National Response Plan and suggests some planning, policy and procedural improvements. Identifies key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations have to be prepared to interact, pontential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangements, and issues/shortfalls. In addition to this paper you may want to read the associated reports of the three specific scenarios portrayed in the workshop.
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A Nuclear Weapon Detonation in the Homeland

Authors: Prof. James Kievit and LTC Jeff McNary
Date Published: 20041015
A report of a seminar of subject matter experts examining a USAWC nuclear weapon attack scenario portraying terrorists detonating a nuclear device in Monroe County Pennsylvania. Participants identified key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations would have to be prepared to interact, potential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangements, and issues/shortfalls. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios (biological and dirty bomb attacks).
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A Radiological Detonation Device Explodes in the Homeland

Authors: LTC John Tanzi and Prof. Michael Pasquarett
Date Published: 20041015
A report of a seminar of subject matter experts examining a USAWC radiological detonation device (RDD) or "dirty bomb" at a prominent central Pennsylvania Travel Assistance Center (truck stop) between Harrisburg and Carlisle. Participants identified key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations would have to be prepared to interact, potential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangments, and issues/shortfalls. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios (nuclear and biological attacks).
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Maritime Threats Workshop

Authors: CDR Robert Wohlschlegel, LTC Curtis W. Turner, and Dr. Kent Butts
Date Published: 20041015
Southeast Asia faces five maritime security challenges: piracy, maritime terrorism, transnational criminal trafficking operations, refugees and illegal migration, and protecting energy routes. The United States-Republic of the Philippines co-hosted the Maritime Threats Workshop held in Cebu, Republic of the Philippines on 26-30 July 2004, focused on promoting multilateral interoperability and cooperation on maritime and environmental issues that foster terrorism; identifying maritime and transnational threats; discussing solutions to these issues; developing maritime protection capabilities; encouraging military support to civil authority; facilitating international and interagency cooperation (to include NGO/IOs); and strengthening the bonds between the military and civilian organizations. The workshop identified opportunities for regional defense security cooperation in responding to maritime and marine resource threats.
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The Reserve Components' Role in Recovering from a Biological Incident

Authors: Prof. Bert Tussing and COL John Traylor
Date Published: 20041015
A report of a seminar of subject matter experts examining a USAWC biological attack. The scenario portrayed a pandemic influenza outbreak transmitted to residents of Johnstown, Pennsylvania by a young boy who acquired the virus during a family vacation in Japan. Participants identified key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations would have to be prepared to interact, potential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangements, and issues/shortfalls. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios (nuclear and dirty bomb attacks).
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Environmental Security and Cooperation Workshop

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts and Lieutenant Colonel Curtis W. Turner
Date Published: 20040915
The United States Army in the Pacific (USARPAC), the Department of Defense (DUSD-I&E), and the United States Army War College conducted an Environmental Security Cooperation Workshop in Bangkok, Thailand from July 19-22, 2004. This workshop focused on multilateral cooperation in developing regional approaches to building governmental legitimacy and creating conditions inhospitable to terrorism. The Royal Thai Army (RTA) has taken a significant role in developing low-cost technologies that help rural communities address the important issues of poverty, food security, health, and the erosion of valuable topsoil. The program stresses sustainability, self-sufficiency, self-reliance, and economic and social progress. As a result of these efforts, support for the Thai government has increased dramatically and the ability of dissident groups to operate within the country has been significantly curtailed. This unique form of military support to civil authority has been praised by the national government for its effectiveness in reducing poverty and creating conditions unfavorable to radical ideology.
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Trilateral Strategic Defense Capability Planning Symposium

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts and Lieutenant Colonel Curtis Turner
Date Published: 20040915
The Republic of the Philippines (RP) has undertaken a bold initiative to reform its national security architecture in order to more effectively address regional terrorist and other transnational threats. The focus of this symposium was to review the threats to regional security and the processes to develop the capabilities necessary to counter those threats. The symposium is the fifth in a series involving the Australia, Republic of the Philippines, and the United States to create a strategic culture in the RP Department of National Defense (DND) and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Asia is a dynamic region in which multiple variables directly affect the security environment in the region; demographics, growing economies using greater natural resources, territiorial disputes, and growth of terrorist groups. In order to respond to these regional security threats, the Philippine Department of National Defense has developed a multiyear security and defense capability planning system.
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Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disaster and Environmental Security Executive Committee (EXCOM) Meeting

Authors: Major Mardis W. Parker
Date Published: 20040815
Man-made and natural disasters continue to be threats in this region and ongoing cooperation in responding to these disasters remains a matter of regional importance. The most likely threats are terrorist attacks, natural disasters and accidents or attacks involving chemcial or toxic materials. Representatives from the nations of the Persian Gulf discussed how the military could more effectively address the issues of disaster preparedness and support to civil authorities. The members of the Executive Committee discussed a 5-year disaster preparedness strategy for the Gulf. This strategy includes civil-military exercises, integration activities and the development of a Regional DIsaster Preparedness Coordiantion Center.
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Iraq 2003-4 and Mesopotamia 1914-18: A Comparative Analysis in Ends and Means

Authors: LTC James D. Scudieri
Date Published: 20040815
This USAWC resident student paper is a comparative analysis of the British campaign in Mesopotamia during the First World War,1914-18 and the current campaign in Iraq, 2003-4, focused on an examination of Phase III decisive operations and Phase IV reconstruction operations, including strategic imperatives, operational planning, and the impact of changes during operations. Both campaigns suffered from a serious mismatch of ends and means at certain stages, especially for post-war reconstruction operations. The study concludes with recommendations for strategic leaders related to planning and force structure.
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Effectiveness of Stability Operations During the Initial Implementation of the Transition Phase for Operation Iraqi Freedom

Authors: Colonel Paul F. Dicker
Date Published: 20040715
U.S. strategy after armed conflict in Iraq was to seal the victory through re-establishment of infrastructure and establishment of democratic civil bodies of government. Prior to the conflict there were several studies that highlighted critical military actions required to insure successful post-conflict stabilization of Iraq. These requirements were not accomplished. The stabilization effort was complicated by the looting and lawlessness resulting from the collapse of regime's military and security force. Post conflict failures in planning and operations, coupled with several inaccurate assumptions, degraded post-conflict stabilization efforts and likely lengthened the post-conflict period of violence and lawlessness. This paper examines and analyzes post conflict stability planning and operations, civil-military operations, and obstacles to achieving U.S. strategic goals in Iraq during the first 60 days of the conflict.
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Incorporation of Indigenous Forces in Major Theater War: Advantages, Risks and Considerations

Authors: Ms. Priscilla Sellers
Date Published: 20040715
Indigenous assets will continue to be incorporated into major theater campaigns, particularly with the recent threat from failed or failing states. The value of such incorporation has been evidenced over time. While the benefit of the local asset depends upon the specific use and locale, the intelligence provided is value added to the US military. The benefit of local surrogates was recently highlighted in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Indigenous fighters on the battlefield lessen the number of US and coalition fatalities which may correspondingly reduce the concerns of a "casualty phobic" US populace. In addition to training, surrogates require appropriate vetting in order to corroborate their information. US military handlers must be aware local assets may use the opportunity to pursue personal agendas or retaliation. Local forces are best characterized by their environments and those from resource-rich failed states may present a unique set of challenges for the US military handler The opportunity for the US military to train and cooperate with the indigenous fighter should be viewed as an initial step to foster the values and skills which will be required during the establishment of that nation's new government.
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Leveraging the Media: The Embedded Media Program in Operation Iraqi Freedom

Authors: Colonel Glenn T. Starnes, OBE
Date Published: 20040715
In the planning for the war in Iraq, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld took a bold step and enacted a major change to the public affairs approach for military operations. In February 2003, he approved the concept of embedding reporters with frontline forces. The Secretary of Defense, along with other strategic leaders seeking to end Saddam Hussein's regime, wanted the American people and the world to see, hear and feel the war, up close and personal. The embedded reporters told a story that otherwise would not have been told. The Embedded Media Program was also an essential part of the Information Operations Campaign. Strategic and operational leaders leveraged (not manipulated) the media in order to enhance and in some cases achieve information operations objectives. Specifically, the US-led coalition countered Iraqi propaganda while affecting tactical and operational actions on the battlefield. The ability to leverage the media coverage of the war assisted the coalition in achieving information superiority.
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Observing al Qaeda Through the Lens of Complexity Theory: Recommendations for the National Strategy to Defeat Terrorism

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Michael F. Beech
Date Published: 20040715
Al Qaeda's attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11th, 2003 showed the World that a complex network of individuals, small groups and organizations coupled by a common sense of purpose and enabled by globalization could deliver a devastating attack upon the most powerful nation on Earth. This paper examines al Qaeda through the lens of Complexity Theory, which shows that this organization is a complex adaptive system that emerged as an agent of change within the strategic system of nation states. To defeat al Qaeda, or other complex global terrorist networks, traditional military strategies reliant on nation state frameworks and determination of centers of gravity and decisive points may not be sufficient. Using the characteristics of Complexity Theory, this paper identifies major inputs to expand the current strategy to defeat terrorism.
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Southeast Asia Subject Matter Expert Exchange

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing, Dr. Richard Winslow and LTC Curtis Turner
Date Published: 20040715
The Subject Matter Expert Exchange program is viewed by USARPAC to be an important element in PACOM's Theater Security Cooperation program with both Malaysia and Indonesia. In Indonesia, in fact, it served as part of a "new beginning" in relations between our militaries, following a temporary cessation of International Military Education and Training (IMET) and associated programs. Perhaps as a function of the same, the questions raised in the Joint War College and the National Resilience Center in Indonesia were occasionally "pointed," revealing a perspective that sometimes casts the United States as a hegemonic giant beyond constraints. However, over time the CSL/NDU training team was able to promote a free and open dialogue with both our Indonesian and Malaysian audiences. In the end, the Commandants and Directors of all of the institutions visited by the briefing team had made it clear that they wanted to keep that dialogue open, and have already begun inquiries towards having the program continued in their countries. As such, both the American presenters and their hosts have reemphasized the importance of shared perspectives and discourse in broadening and strengthening our strategic partnership in South East Asia.
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Southeast Asia Subject Matter Expert Exchange

Authors: Prof. Bert Tussing, Dr. Richard Winslow, and LTC Curtis Turner
Date Published: 20040715
From 6-19 June 2004, a team composed of staff members from the US Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership and the National Defense University traveled to Joint War College, Education Training and Doctrine Command, and National Resilience Institure in Indonesia and the Armed Forces Defense College in Malaysia in support of the US Pacific Command's Subject Matter Exchange Program. At the behest of their hosts, the team prepared and delivered presentations on US Defense Organization, Structures, and Capabilities; Strategic Concept Development and its application in the US National Security Strategy; the evolving Homeland Security mission in the USA and its supporting infrastructure; and the Combined Forces Land Component Command campaign plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom.
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Swiftly Defeat The Efforts: Then What? The "New American Way Of War" And Transitioning Decisive Combat To Post Conflict Stabilization

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel John D. Nelson
Date Published: 20040715
Since the end of the first Gulf War the United States has fought in three decisive operations: Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. The principles of Rapid Decisive Operations influenced the pattern and conduct of operations in all three conflicts. This has been termed the "New American Way of War." These last three combat operations seem to ratify the ideas postulated in the concept of Rapid Decisive Operations, and appear to justify the force sizing choices made in the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review. However, post conflict operations were never included as part of the force sizing calculus. Paradoxically it now takes more ground force to secure the peace in post conflict than to bring an end to decisive operations. This paper examines the paradox created by the "New American Way of War" and the increased need for ground forces to secure the peace compared to conducting decisive operations, focusing on the period of time in a campaign when decisive operations transition from conflict termination to post conflict stability operations.
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Transformational Leadership in Wartime

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Steven Eden
Date Published: 20040715
This paper examines three case studies of wartime transformation, analyzes common factors leading to success, and suggests the kind of leadership the Army requires in its current effort to transform.
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Collins Center Senior Symposium: Examining Critical Infrastructure Protection Strategies

Authors: Prof. Bert Tussing, Dr. Kenneth Butts, and COL John Traylor
Date Published: 20040515
The senior symposium on the Evolving Strategies for Critical Infrastructure Protection addressed the responsibilities for identifying, prioritizing and protecting critical infrastructure and key assets, shared between the federal, state and local governments, and within the private sector. The distinguished panel of participants addressed issues of authority and oversight for this protection; prioritization challenges; the role of the Department of Defense in CIP; and, in particular, the evolving role of NORTHCOM and the National Guard. The pervading themes throughout the symposium surrounded responsibiliity and accountability in our institutions, our businesses, and our population, in providing for the common defense.
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The 'Global ' Homeland: International Perspectives on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20040515
Given the immediacy of the terrorist threat, it is easy to become focused on terrorism only in regard to the United States. However, other nations, international organizations, and transnational law enforcement agencies such as Europol and Interpol are deeply committed to the counterterror effort. Seeing the Global War on Terror from their points of view provides both greater insight and greater opportunities for success. Such international perspectives on domestic security and counterterrorism were discussed at a Homeland Security Conference in London in February 2004. Presentations by experts from six different countries, the European Union, and NATO examined preparations against the new domestic threat from a range of perspectives that included the private sector; local and national governments; and international organizations.
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Addressing Transnational Threats in Southeast Asia: Environmental Security and Counter Terrorism

Authors: Dr. Kent Hughes Butts and LTC Curtis W. Turner
Date Published: 20040115
Terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia have demonstrated the ability to exploit environmental disasters or degradation to undermine governmental legitimacy and gain popular support. One of the major causes of regional stability is poverty. Developing a regional counter terrorism capability, particularly as it pertains to poverty, developing efficient WMD consequence management, Disaster Response, and Critical Infrastructure Management programs, may serve as a rallying point of commons concern for countries in the region, and a foundation for other cooperative endeavors. In response to a request from the United States Pacific Command, the USAWC Center for Strategic Leadership conducted a Environmental Security and Counter Terrorism Conference in Manila, Philippines facilitated an assessment of the region's key Environmental Security issues, identify military roles in preventing terrorist activities, and develop multilateral plans for preventing and responding to disasters. The results of that assessment, taken from the perspective of representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, are addressed in this paper.
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Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disaster and Environmental Security Executive Committee (EXCOM) Meeting

Authors: MAJ Mardis W. Parker, USAF, U.S. Central Command and Dr. Kent Hughes Butts
Date Published: 20031215
Countries in the Region are increasingly aware environmental problems exacerbated by natural or man-made events can contribute to regional instability and conflict. However, the reality is that these events may overwhelm the capabilities of a single country. The countries suggested topics to improve consequence management and disaster response from terrorist attacks on infrastructure, warning capabilities and training, and prevention and response to a WMD event. Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress, displace populations, and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements, and terrorist activities. US Central Command and Qatar Armed Forces conducted an Executive Committee Meeting conducted October 12-14, 2003, in Mesaieed, Qatar with assistance from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD(I&E)), and Center for Strategic Leadership of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC/CSL), to promote multilateral cooperation on transnational threats between the regional states.
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Rebalancing the Force: Weighing the Roles of the Components

Authors: LTC Robert W. Lindemann, LTC (P) John C. Traylor, Prof. Bert B. Tussing and Prof. James O. Kievit
Date Published: 20031215
Current rebalancing efforts underway within the Army will significantly reshape both the active and reserve components. Changes in mission focus, resource assignments, force structure and mobilizations processes are all likely as the Army seeks to implement the Secretary of Defense's guidance to rebalance the force. Recommendations include: RC volunteerism, Maintaining the Total Force Policy, Deployment Incentive Programs, Increased National Guard role in Homeland Defense, Expanded responsibilities for Joint State National Guard Headquarters, Transforming "mobilization" to "transition to active duty", Maintain warfighting roles in the RC, Developing and sustaining specialized CBRNE capabilities for "the domestic front" within DHS. Concluding that "Rebalancing the Force" is critical to executing the National Security Strategy.
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Crack in the Foundation: Defense Transformation and the Underlying Assumption of Dominant Knowledge in Future War

Authors: LTC H. R. McMaster
Date Published: 20031115
The author argues that acceptance of the assumption of certainty in future war is illogical because the claimed source of certainty - technology - is unable to remove or even reduce significantly principal sources of uncertainty in war. The idea that future war will be near-certain fails to account for enemy actions, reduces the complexity of warfare to identifying and targeting things, and ignores the human and psychological dimensions of war. Instead of pursuing situational certainty, only an embrace of the ambiguity of war, and the development of balanced Joint Forces, effective joint integration, and adaptive leaders will permit the flexibility that is the true key to future victories.
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Strengthening Regional Cooperation in Central Asia / Central Asian States Disaster Response Conference 2003

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard, Prof. Bert B. Tussing, and LTC Curtis Turner
Date Published: 20031115
Today's threats to stability are trans-national in nature and rarely contained within the borders of one country. In most cases the consequences of a major terrorist action or environmental disaster will quickly overwhelm the management capability and response assets of the affected nation. When that occurs the maintenance of stability relies on effective regional, and if required, international assistance. A government that attempts to "go it alone" in today's environment runs the risk of losing the confidence of its citizens and, as a result, its viability.
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USAWC Supports U. S. Central Command Consequence Management Conference

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20031115
Developing a regional disaster response capability, particularly as it pertains to the deliberate or inadvertent release of chemical, biological, or nuclear contaminants, may serve as a rallying point of commons concern for countries in a given theater, and a foundation for other cooperative endeavors. In response to a request from the United States Central Command, the USAWC Center for Strategic Leadership recently facilitated an assessment of the command's Consequence Management program designed towards these ends, supporting the nations of the Gulf Cooperative Council, Jordan, and Egypt. The results of that assessment, taken from the perspective of representatives from Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, are addressed in this paper.
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Assisting Professional Militaries in Latin America, National Security Stategy Development Workshop, La Paz, Bolivia

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard, and LTC Todd M. Wheeler
Date Published: 20031015
Professionalization of their nation's military establishment is a challenge for some Latin American democracies because of the historical baggage carried by their armed forces. However, the reality is that military organizations existing with less than adequate training and professional standards as well as operating in an under resourced environment are susceptible to corruption and politicization, and in that way pose a threat to further democratic development. At the request of United States Southern Command and in support of their efforts to assist the nations of Central and South America in developing a strategic planning process, the USAWC's Center for Strategic Leadership conducted a National Security Strategy Development Workshop in La Paz, Bolivia which which included the current class of 61 students (36 Military, 5 National Police and 20 Civilian Government personnel.) at the Bolivian Escuela de Altos Estudios Nacionales, their National War College.
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Citizen-Soldiers in a 21st Century Army at War

Authors: Prof. James O. Kievit and LTC Thomas P. Murray
Date Published: 20031015
Ongoing debates on the role, size, structure, and use of the Army Reserve and National Guard eventually will lead to decisions that likely will affect the ability of the Nation to successfully fight and win both its current and future wars. To assist in exploring Reserve Component issues, the Center for Strategic Leadership hosted a dialogue in August 2003 among seven retired general officers representing service in the Active Army, the Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard. Selected insights from their discussions are found in this paper.
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Reporters on the Ground: The Military and the Media's Experience During Operation Iraqi Freedom

Authors: Prof. Michael Pasquarett
Date Published: 20031015
During the planning for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) the Department of Defense (DoD) developed an embedded media program that planned for large numbers of embedded reporters throughout military units. Unlike Vietnam in the 1970s, this program resulted in television reporting from within Iraq, especially from those reporters embedded with front lines units, almost instantaneously. The speed that these reports made it on the air often outpaced the military's communication channels. Although it gave the American citizens an immediate close up report of what their armed forces were doing, it handicapped media analysts and stateside reporters in their ability to put the raw reporting from the field into a larger context. Conversely those TV journalists supplying these spectacular reports and engrossing pictures from the front line were also handicapped in that they were reporting in a vacuum, unable themselves to obtain any kind of perspective or context.
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'Environmental Security Cooperation' USARPAC's: Defense Environmental and International Cooperation (DEIC) Conference

Authors: Dr. Kent H. Butts, LTC Curtis W. Turner, and Dr. Christopher
Date Published: 20030915
Environmental problems exacerbated by natural or man-made events can contribute to regional instability and conflict. Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress, displace populations, and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements, and terrorist activities. The conference conducted June 17-19, 2003, in Bangkok, Thailand was developed under the rubric of the Defense Environmental and International Cooperation (DEIC) Program of United States Army Pacific, with assistance from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD (I&E)), and Center for Strategic Leadership of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC/CSL), to promote multilateral cooperation on transnational threats between the regional states and USPACOM/USARPAC. In addition to the host country, key military, and civilian leaders at the flag officer, NGO, medical and governmental representatives from the Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.
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A National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC): Strategic Leader Education and Formulation of Critical Infrastructure Policies

Authors: COL William Wimbish and MAJ Jeffrey Sterling
Date Published: 20030815
With the collapse of the World Trade Center Towers, many national policy makers feared the financial markets would follow, causing a cascading breakdown of other critical infrastructure assets. Fortunately, our worst nightmare failed to materialize, but the need to protect and to better understand our nation's critical assets was unmistakable. The clarion from the 9/11 terrorist's attack calls for strategic leaders to understand the complexity, interdependency, and vulnerability of our infrastructure. The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) provides an unparalleled modeling, simulations, and analysis capability to assist the military's Senior Service College (SSC) community in educating future strategic leaders about the realities of the Nation's infrastructure system and in researching the effects that new government security policies and actions would have on the nation's critical assets and public and private sector services.
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Public Safety During Combat: A Positive Lesson from Vietnam

Authors: COL Frank L. Miller
Date Published: 20030615
The idea that civil order is impossible in a "non-permissive environment" is historically wrong. Stability operations have been conducted throughout the intensity levels of past wars and lesser contingencies. They should not be "on order" missions for combat forces, but "as needed" missions for a dedicated noncombatant organization. The transition has to be planned for, resourced, and initiated prior to the end of combat operations. Following the Vietnam-era USAID Public Safety Division's model, this critical mission of providing public safety immediately behind the leading edge of advancing combat forces can be executed. We just have to plan for it.
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Re-Examining Tomorrow's Battlefield: Taking the Fight into the Cities

Authors: COL Steven M. Jones
Date Published: 20030615
A re-examination of urban warfare is needed?a new strategic warfighting paradigm and mandate for change. The urban environment provides advantages to adversaries that U.S. forces can ill afford. Cities, our future battlefields, demand a shift in warfighting strategy beyond the scope of the U.S. Department of Defense. Preparing for the future requires a broader concept for National Security; it requires a practical, resourced, and exceedingly well-trained interagency fighting force, rather than a theoretical interagency concept or a military force expected to do it all.
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Reserve Component Portrayal in Army War Games and Exercises

Authors: COL Jeffrey C. Reynolds, LTC (P) John C. Traylor, LTC (P) Thomas Murray and Prof. James O. Kievit
Date Published: 20030515
The Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted 54 participants at a workshop conducted May 21-22, 2003 at the Collins Center, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania and examined the portrayal of reserve component forces in the recently concluded Strategic Crisis Exercise, Joint Land, Aerospace, and Sea Simulation, and Unified Quest 2003.
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Wargaming Homeland Security and Army Reserve Component Issues

Authors: Prof. Michael Pasquarett
Date Published: 20030515
This paper documents issues with DOD's homeland defense and civil support missions, identified through the prism of two AY 2003 senior service college war games (SCE and JLASS). Both war games clearly demonstrated that securing the homeland while prosecuting wars overseas places significant strains on military capabilities, especially within the Reserve Components. Among the paper's most significant recommendations is the creation and conduct of a Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense co-sponsored separate, HLS-specific, experiential war game in order to assist in more adequately defining all potential HLS roles and missions.
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DOD, NORTHCOM, and the Department of Homeland Security

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing and Prof. James Kievit
Date Published: 20030415
In April 2003 the United States Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership brought together a panel of selected flag and general officers to discuss issues surrounding the three new organizations addressing the challenge of homeland security: the Department of Homeland Security, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense, and the United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM). The forum addressed roles and missions of the military in responding to homeland security requirements; plans, training and education to meet those requirements; and competing requirements and risk analysis surrounding the military's responsibilities in homeland security matters.
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Strategic Leaders Adapting to the Future Environment - Department of State

Authors: COL Bill Wimbish
Date Published: 20030215
On 2 February 2003, 23 Principal Deputy Assistant Secretaries, Deputy Assistant Secretaries and key Senior Executives from across the Department, gathered at the United States Army War College's (USAWC) Center for Strategic Leadership to discuss strategic leadership and organizational change. The three-day workshop, cosponsored by the USAWC and the Foreign Institute (FSI), was the third in a series of collegial partnership events between the U.S. Army and DOS.
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The Day After: The Army in a Post-Conflict Iraq

Authors: COL Dennis Murphy, LTC Curtis Turner and LTC Bob Hesse
Date Published: 20021215
This issue paper summarizes the results of several post-conflict requirements symposia sponsored by the U.S. Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership over a period of three years and considers these results in light of the Army's Title 10 responsibilities in post-conflict Iraq. In particular, it provides an outline of the general resource requirements for the major subordinate commands (MACOMs) of the Army who are responsible for planning and executing these responsibilities. Additionally, it considers the impact of other ongoing operations and plausible future operations that may drive risk management decisions by the MACOMs as they plan and execute tasks required by the strategic environment in Iraq and the region.
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Examining Transformation of the Army Reserve and Army National Guard for the 21st Century

Authors: LTC John Traylor, LTC Thomas Murray and Prof. James Kievit
Date Published: 20021115
On September 23-26, the Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) hosted a workshop with 85 senior Active Component (AC) and Reserve Component (RC) leaders in order to develop an improved understanding of Army National Guard (ARNG) and Army Reserve (AR) in the emergent national security environment so as to better portray them in U.S. Army War College and other Army activities and exercises.
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Portraying the Army Reserve Components in Army War Games and Exercises

Authors: COL Dick Dillon, Prof. James Kievit, and LTC Thomas Murray
Date Published: 20021115
Over the past thirty years reservists have become increasingly vital members of America's total employed military capabilities. Certainly following the September 11 terrorist attacks there has been a significant activation of elements of the Reserve Components (RC) to support both domestic and overseas national security requirements. Accurate and realistic portrayal of RC processes, forces, and capabilities in analytical, educational, and training events thus is critical to meeting U.S. national security needs as well as to developing valid approaches to military Transformation in the 21st century. Assisting to ensure that accuracy and realism was the primary purpose of the Role of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in Army Exercises workshop conducted at the Collins Center from 23-26 September 2002.
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Shortening The Defense Acquisition Cycle: A Transformation Imperative

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard
Date Published: 20021115
MG Joseph L. Yakovac, Program Executive Officer, Ground Combat Systems, sought to tap into industry for ideas on how the acquisition and development cycle might be streamlined so that the CSA's end of the decade deadline for the fielding of an FCS-equipped unit of action can be achieved. During an Army FCS Industry Day presented by the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) in August 2002, MG Yakovac asked industry participants to define the parameters for a Brave New World of Systems Acquisition.
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The U.S. Army's Initial Impressions of Operations Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle

Authors: COL Eugene L. Thompson and Dr. Conrad C. Crane
Date Published: 20021015
During a 26-29 August 2002 conference conducted at the Collins Center for Strategic Leadership of the United States Army War College, a group of 51 representitives, from throughout the Army gathered to examine initial impressions from Operations Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle (OEF/NE). Led by the Deputy Director for Strategy and policy, Army G-3, they examined the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), at home and abroad, seeking ways to improve The Army's overall performance as well as capture, organize, and exploit leesons learned over the long term.
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Environmental Planning, Prevention And Disaster Response In The Arabian Gulf

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard and Dr. Kent H. Butts
Date Published: 20020915
Environmental problems exacerbated by natural or man-made events can contribute to regional instability and conflict. Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress, displace populations, and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Using these identified concerns as focus points, the Qatari Armed Forces and the USCENTCOM, with assistance from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD (I&E)), the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA), and the U.S. Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership (USAWC/CSL) conducted the second GCC-U.S. Environmental Security Conference, Environmental Planning, Prevention And Disaster Response In The Arabian Gulf, September 15-18, 2002 in Doha, Qatar.
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United States Army Pacific and United States Army War College Lead Trilateral Strategic Planning Initiative

Authors: Dr. Kent H. Butts and Prof. Bert B. Tussing
Date Published: 20020915
Developed under the rubric of the Pacific Command's Security Cooperation Program, the workshop was a follow-on to the March 2002 USARPAC-USAWC strategic planning symposium dedicated to the development of a Defense Strategic Planning Initiative (DSPI) for the RP Department of National Defense. Under the personal oversight of the Secretary, the workshop was the second of what is envisioned to be a workshop series dedicated to what Secretary Reyes termed the "establishment of a strategic culture" within the DND and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).
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Business and Security in a Wired World

Authors: COL Dennis Murphy
Date Published: 20020715
The U.S. Army War College (USAWC) Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) conducted a "Business Security in a Wired World" seminar in Rye, New York on 24-25 April 2002. Participants in the event included business executives representing critical infrastructure segments, government participants, and executives of two industry associations. The College's objective in the session was to obtain a better understanding of private sector concerns for information assurance and homeland security. Following the panels, CSL facilitators led a "crisis exercise" which examined key aspects of policy implementation, information sharing, stakeholder expectations, incident response and recovery, and organizational culture.
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Fourth Anton Myrer Strategic Leadership Conference: A 'Leadership During Crisis' Workshop

Authors: Prof. Michael H. Crutcher, Prof. James Kievit, Prof. Tom Sweeney, and COL Greg Adams
Date Published: 20020715
Over twenty experienced senior business, civilian government, military, and academic leaders met for three days in mid-June at the U.S. Army War College's Collins Center to examine how leaders respond to various crises in their organizations. The specific objectives of the workshop, the 4th annual leadership symposium sponsored by the Army War College Foundation in honor of Anton Myrer's superb novel on military leadership, "Once An Eagle", included: Similarities and differences in how strategic leaders prepare for and respond to crises in each type of organization, What the leaders of each type of institution might learn from each other regarding leadership during crises, How better to educate strategic leaders.
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Central American Environmental Defense Program in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard, Mr. Art Bradshaw, and Dr. Kent H. Butts
Date Published: 20020615
The United States Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership, the United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), the U.S. Department of State, and the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) cosponsored a validation workshop for Central American states entitled "Central American Environmental Defense Program in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor." The workshop was held on the campus of CATIE in Turrialba, Costa Rica, on June 24th through the 27th, 2002. Attendees included Military and civilian officials from Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.
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Strengthening the Bonds of Environmental Cooperation Between Security Forces and Environmental Institutions

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard
Date Published: 20020615
With the goals of enhancing environmental cooperation between defense and environmental authorities of the region's states, and examining opportunities for multi-lateral and inter-agency cooperation, the Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL), USAWC, along with the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD, I&E), and the U.S. Embassy Asuncion, cosponsored USSOUTHCOM's Regional Environmental Security Conference "Strengthening The Bonds Of Environmental Cooperation Between Security Forces And Environmental Institutions". Co-hosted by the Paraguayan Ministries of Defense and the Environment, the conference was conducted on May 28-31, 2002 in Asuncion, Paraguay. In addition to the host country, key military and civilian leaders at the flag officer and vice-ministerial level represented Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay.
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Partnering for Environmental Security Cooperation in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin

Authors: COL Jeffrey C. Reynolds and Dr. Kent H. Butts
Date Published: 20020515
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) conducted the conference Partnering for Environmental Security Cooperation in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin April 3-5, 2002 at the Armed Forces Recreation Center-Chiemsee, Germany. The purpose of the conference was to promote security cooperation with the Central Asian States through multilateral environmental security planning. The conference participants reviewed environmental challenges that threatened regional stability, identified obstacles to regional cooperation, and developed regional contingency plans that stressed interoperability and consequence management.
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Wargaming Homeland Security to Meet the Challenges Confronting 21st Century America

Authors: Prof. Michael Pasquarett
Date Published: 20020515
After the traumatic events of September 11, the U.S. Army War College aggressively sought to engage in the national challenges born of the tragedy-specifically Homeland Security-in hopes of ensuring our students understanding of the challenges and help in contributing to a solution. The War College sought to accomplish this by replicating as close to known reality the emerging Homeland Security environment and playing it in the capstone student wargaming event, the Strategic Crisis Exercise (SCE).
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Department of State Strategic Planning Workshop II

Authors: COL Jeffery C. Reynolds
Date Published: 20020415
A State Department request, made at the senior level, asked the Army Chief of Staff if the Army could help State improve its capacity to undertake strategic planning. In April 2001 the Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership conducted the initial Department of State Strategic Planning Workshop. That workshop's success led to a second workshop for 52 additional Department of State leaders conducted 4-5 February 2002 at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. This paper summarizes the discussions and issues raised at the conference.
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Defending The Defender - Keeping the Shield Strong

Authors: Prof. Michael Pasquarett, COL Pat Carney, COL Peter Cohen, and COL Richard Dillon
Date Published: 20011215
Over thirty-five subject matter experts from both the federal government and the private sector participated in the three-day workshop conducted at the U.S. Army War College's Collins Center from 26-28 November 2001. The purpose of the workshop was to explore issues regarding the security of our present and future space and missile defense systems, especially from asymmetric threats. Workshop participants examined the vulnerabilities of the National Missile Defense (NMD) and Theater Missile Defense (TMD) portions of the Integrated Missile Defense (IMD) system based on projected operational concepts briefed during the workshop.
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Economics and National Security: The Case of China

Authors: LTC Edward L. Hughes and Dr. Kent H. Butts
Date Published: 20011215
This conference was held to explore the national security dimensions of the U.S.-China economic relationship and to identify possible roles for the economic element of national power in formulating policy options. The conference was held 27-28 November, 2001.
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Streamlining National Security Workshop: The Homeland Group

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing and COL Peter D. Men
Date Published: 20011015
This paper presents the preliminary findings and identifies some critical issues raised by The Homeland Group during the Workshop on Streamlining National Security 5 to 7 September 2001. Sixty subject matter experts gathered to discuss and explore concepts for restructuring certain areas within existing national security organizations.
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Streamlining National Security Workshop: The Overseas Group

Authors: Prof. Michael Pasquarett, Prof. James Kievit, COL Pat Carney, and COL Dick Dillon
Date Published: 20011015
This paper presents the preliminary findings and identifies some critical issues raised by The Overseas Working Group during the Workshop on Streamlining National Security 5 to 7 September 2001. Sixty subject matter experts gathered to discuss and explore concepts for restructuring certain areas within existing national security organizations.
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Consequence Management Symposium

Authors: Prof. Bert B. Tussing and COL Jeffrey C. Reynolds
Date Published: 20010915
During a 21-23 August 2001 symposium a group of 80 subject matter experts examined the evolving policy and infrastructure surrounding Consequence Management. Participants concentrated on interagency and intergovernmental issues within this national challenge.
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CJCS 7th Annual Seminar on Peace Operation

Authors: COL George F. Oliver
Date Published: 20010715
This year's seminar, 10-12 July 2001, focused on interagency planning and coordination in order to address the changing nature of complex crises since the end of the Cold War. Concepts such as interagency coordination committees and comprehensive political-military plans were discussed.
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Promoting Stability in Central Asia

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard
Date Published: 20010715
The 7th annual conference on Promoting Stability in Central Asia was conducted 11-15 June 2001 in Kazakhstan. This conference focused on five major themes: Regional Security, Economic and Environmental Security Challenges, Regional Cooperation, and Recommendations to Enhance Regional Cooperation and Security.
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Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions Policies and Prospects

Authors: Prof. Michael H. Crutcher
Date Published: 20010715
In early December 2000, over 25 specialists examined Russian National Security. The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign policies in the world, and prospects for Russian interests and actions in the world.
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Contagion and Stability

Authors: COL Jeffrey C. Reynolds and Dr. Kent H. Butts
Date Published: 20010515
The Contagion and Stability game was conducted 15-17 May 2001 to exam medical issues that have an impact on national security. The game provided a forum to examine the military, economic, informational, political and medical aspects of contagion in an environmentally stressed region of the less-developed world.
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Department of State Strategic Planning Workshop

Authors: COL Jeffrey C. Reynolds
Date Published: 20010415
This conference, hosted 9-10 April 2001, for 65 foreign service and civilian personnel exposed Department of State participants to Army Strategic Planning and how it is incorporated in the Army. The purpose was to help the Department of State to improve its capacity to undertake strategic planning.
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Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin (Summary)

Authors: Prof. Bernard F. Griffard and Dr. Kent H. Butts
Date Published: 20010415
On 6-8 March 2001, USCENTCOM hosted this conference to examine the environmental security aspects of disaster response planning in Central Asia and Caspian Basin. Environmental issues central to security in the region were clarified and examined the importance of military environmental stewardship and cooperation.
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Conventional Deterence in the First Quarter of the New Century

Authors: COL Peter D. Menk
Date Published: 20010201
This workshop, held 20-22 February 2001, investigated how U.S. national power Should be postured to remain an effective deterrent force in support of U.S. national security objectives in the 21st Century. Participants considered the geostrategic environment, U.S. national interests, and ways to employ national power.
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Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

Authors: COL Peter D. Menk
Date Published: 20010101
From 28-30 November 2000, the participants examined the use of United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations. The post conflict phase is perhaps the most challenging, complex, and frustrating phase for the U.S. The participants examined possible missions for the U.S. military in this phase.
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Deterrence in the 21st Century: March, 2000

Authors: Mr. Larry M. Blotzer
Date Published: 20000401
Articles included in this issue are: Deterence in the 21st Century - Concensus, Key Points, and Conclusions.
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The Russian Military at the Dawn of the Millenium: March, 2000

Authors: Prof. Michael H. Crutcher
Date Published: 20000401
Articles included in this issue are: "The Russian Military at the Dawn of the Millennium" - "Physical Environment", "The Political Environment", "The Criminal Challenge", "The Kosovo Factor", "The Criminal Challenge", "The Economic Challenge", "Threat Perceptions", and "State of the Russian Military".
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